Tropical Health


Malaria can kill! Protect yourself! It is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium. Human malaria

Common symptoms of malaria include: shaking, chills, high fever. profuse sweating. headache. nausea. vomiting. abdominal pain and diarrhea. Symptoms usually develop after 3 - 8 weeks. Occasionally as early as 9 days and up to 7 years after exposure. Malaria can be a life-threatening disease. Seek urgent medical aid. Transmission is through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito. which carries the protozoan parasite Plasmodium. There are four different species of Plasmodium: P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. ovale and P. vivax. 

Yellow Fever


Yellow fever is a disease caused by a virus that is spread through mosquito bites. Symptoms take 3–6 days to develop and include fever, chills, headache, backache, and muscle aches. About 15% of people who get yellow fever develop serious illness that can lead to bleeding, shock, organ failure, and sometimes death.

Overview. Yellow fever is a serious infection spread by mosquitoes. It's found in parts of Africa, South America, Central America and the Caribbean. There is a vaccine which is recommended.



Bilharziasis or Schistosomiasis, also known as snail fever, is a disease caused by parasitic flatworms called schistosomes. Infection occurs when your skin comes in contact with contaminated freshwater in which certain types of snails that carry schistosomes are living. The urinary tract or the intestines may be infected. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloody stool, or blood in the urine. Treatment is available, however  if you have these symptoms, you need a prescription from your doctor for this urgently to prevent any lasting effects.

Dengue Fever


This is another mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms typically begin three to fourteen days after infection. This may include a high fever, headache, vomiting, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash. The bite from the female mosquitoes is mainly of the species Aedes aegypti. Expect a week of acute symptoms, followed by a few days of recovery; rarely beyond two weeks.



Chickungunya (CHIKV)is a mosquito born viral infection. Symptoms include fever and joint pain. A rash, joint swelling, and headaches can also present.  Symptom usually occur 2-12 days following exposure and last  up to a week. Joint pain can however last for month. For advice on how to manage  this, please contact me for individual counsel    



A parasite is an organism that lives on another organism and benefits by taking nutrition from the host at its expense. 

If you are tired and run down following a trip abroad, you may well have taken on an unwelcome guest!  You can get infested through contaminated water, meat or salads, unwashed fruti and vegetables and thought the skin. Symptoms include changed in bowel habits, bloating, exhaustion, cramping and abdominal pain, irritation around the anus.  Other symptoms include Joint and muscle pain, rashes and skin irritations. 

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